Misc Functions

ascii

ascii(obj?)

Prints the ascii table or convert an input string to an ascii array, or an ascii array to a string.

  • obj: An optional input (string or array of numbers or directly an integer).

Returns

Depending on the input:

  • If no input, it will display the ascii table
  • If the input is an integer, it will convert it to the equivalent ascii char.
  • If the input is a string, it will convert the string to a byte buffer containing the corresponding ascii bytes.
  • If the input is an array of integer, it will convert each element to the equivalent ascii char.

Example

>>> ascii 65
# ascii(65)
out = "A"
>>> ascii 97
# ascii(97)
out = "a"
>>> ascii "A"
# ascii("A")
out = 65
>>> ascii "kalk"
# ascii("kalk")
out = bytebuffer([107, 97, 108, 107])
>>> ascii out
# ascii(out)
out = "kalk"

bin

bin(value,prefix?,separator?)

Converts an integral/bytebuffer input to a binary representation or convert a binary input string to an integral/bytebuffer representation.

  • value: The input value.
  • prefix: Output the prefix 0x in front of each binary bytes when converting from integral to binary.
  • separator: The character used to separate binary bytes when converting from integral to binary.

Returns

The binary representation of the input or convert the binary input string to an integral representation.

Remarks

When converting from a binary string to an integral representation, this method will skip any white-space characters, comma ,, colon :, semi-colon ;, underscore _ and dash -. When the binary input string can be converted to an integral less than or equal 8 bytes (64 bits) it will convert it to a single integral result, otherwise it will convert to a bytebuffer. See the following examples.

Example

>>> bin 10
# bin(10)
out = "00001010 00000000 00000000 00000000"
>>> bin out
# bin(out)
out = 10
>>> bin 0xff030201
# bin(-16580095)
out = "00000001 00000010 00000011 11111111"
>>> bin out
# bin(out)
out = 4278387201
>>> bin "11111111000000110000001000000001"
# bin("11111111000000110000001000000001")
out = 4278387201
>>> bin(byte(5))
# bin(byte(5))
out = "00000101"
>>> bin(long(6))
# bin(long(6))
out = "00000110 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000"
>>> bin(out)
# bin(out)
out = 6
>>> kind(out)
# kind(out)
out = "long"

colors

colors

Display or returns the known CSS colors.

Returns

Prints known CSS colors or return a list if this function is used in an expression.

Example

>>> colors[0]
# colors[0]
out = rgb(240, 248, 255) ## F0F8FF AliceBlue ##
>>> mycolor = colors["AliceBlue"]; mycolor.name
# mycolor = colors["AliceBlue"]; mycolor.name
mycolor = rgb(240, 248, 255) ## F0F8FF AliceBlue ##
out = "AliceBlue"

contains

contains(list,value)

Checks if an object (string, list, vector types, bytebuffer...) is containing the specified value.

  • list: The list to search into.
  • value: The value to search into the list.

Returns

true if value was found in the list input; otherwise false.

Example

>>> contains("kalk", "l")
# contains("kalk", "l")
out = true
>>> contains("kalk", "e")
# contains("kalk", "e")
out = false
>>> contains([1,2,3,4,5], 3)
# contains([1,2,3,4,5], 3)
out = true
>>> contains([1,2,3,4,5], 6)
# contains([1,2,3,4,5], 6)
out = false
>>> contains(float4(1,2,3,4), 3)
# contains(float4(1, 2, 3, 4), 3)
out = true
>>> contains(float4(1,2,3,4), 6)
# contains(float4(1, 2, 3, 4), 6)
out = false

date

date

Gets the current date, parse the input date or return the date object, depending on use cases.

  • If this function doesn't have any parameter and is not used to index a member, it returns the current date. It is equivalent of date.now

    The return date object has the following properties:

    Name Description
    .year Gets the year of a date object
    .month Gets the month of a date object
    .day Gets the day in the month of a date object
    .day_of_year Gets the day within the year
    .hour Gets the hour of the date object
    .minute Gets the minute of the date object
    .second Gets the second of the date object
    .millisecond Gets the millisecond of the date object
  • If this function has a string parameter, it will try to parse the string as a date

  • Otherwise, if this function provides the following sub functions and members:

    • date.add_days: Example '2016/01/05' |> date |> date.add_days 1

    • date.add_months: Example '2016/01/05' |> date |> date.add_months 1

    • date.add_years: Example '2016/01/05' |> date |> date.add_years 1

    • date.add_hours

    • date.add_minutes

    • date.add_seconds

    • date.add_milliseconds

    • date.to_string: Converts a datetime object to a textual representation using the specified format string.

      By default, if you are using a date, it will use the format specified by date.format which defaults to date.default_format (readonly) which default to %d %b %Y

      You can override the format used for formatting all dates by assigning the a new format: date.format = '%a %b %e %T %Y';

      You can recover the default format by using date.format = date.default_format;

      By default, the to_string format is using the current culture, but you can switch to an invariant culture by using the modifier %g

      For example, using %g %d %b %Y will output the date using an invariant culture.

      If you are using %g alone, it will output the date with date.format using an invariant culture.

      Suppose that date.now would return the date 2013-09-12 22:49:27 +0530, the following table explains the format modifiers:

      Format Result Description
      "%a" "Thu" Name of week day in short form of the
      "%A" "Thursday" Week day in full form of the time
      "%b" "Sep" Month in short form of the time
      "%B" "September" Month in full form of the time
      "%c" Date and time (%a %b %e %T %Y)
      "%C" "20" Century of the time
      "%d" "12" Day of the month of the time
      "%D" "09/12/13" Date (%m/%d/%y)
      "%e" "12" Day of the month, blank-padded ( 1..31)
      "%F" "2013-09-12" ISO 8601 date (%Y-%m-%d)
      "%h" "Sep" Alias for %b
      "%H" "22" Hour of the time in 24 hour clock format
      "%I" "10" Hour of the time in 12 hour clock format
      "%j" "255" Day of the year (001..366) (3 digits, left padded with zero)
      "%k" "22" Hour of the time in 24 hour clock format, blank-padded ( 0..23)
      "%l" "10" Hour of the time in 12 hour clock format, blank-padded ( 0..12)
      "%L" "000" Millisecond of the time (3 digits, left padded with zero)
      "%m" "09" Month of the time
      "%M" "49" Minutes of the time (2 digits, left padded with zero e.g 01 02)
      "%n" Newline character (\n)
      "%N" "000000000" Nanoseconds of the time (9 digits, left padded with zero)
      "%p" "PM" Gives AM / PM of the time
      "%P" "pm" Gives am / pm of the time
      "%r" "10:49:27 PM" Long time in 12 hour clock format (%I:%M:%S %p)
      "%R" "22:49" Short time in 24 hour clock format (%H:%M)
      "%s" Number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000
      "%S" "27" Seconds of the time
      "%t" Tab character (\t)
      "%T" "22:49:27" Long time in 24 hour clock format (%H:%M:%S)
      "%u" "4" Day of week of the time (from 1 for Monday to 7 for Sunday)
      "%U" "36" Week number of the current year, starting with the first Sunday as the first day of the first week (00..53)
      "%v" "12-SEP-2013" VMS date (%e-%b-%Y) (culture invariant)
      "%V" "37" Week number of the current year according to ISO 8601 (01..53)
      "%W" "36" Week number of the current year, starting with the first Monday as the first day of the first week (00..53)
      "%w" "4" Day of week of the time (from 0 for Sunday to 6 for Saturday)
      "%x" Preferred representation for the date alone, no time
      "%X" Preferred representation for the time alone, no date
      "%y" "13" Gives year without century of the time
      "%Y" "2013" Year of the time
      "%Z" "IST" Gives Time Zone of the time
      "%%" "%" Output the character %

      Note that the format is using a good part of the ruby format (source)

Returns

The current date, parse the input date or return the date object, depending on use cases.

Example

 >>> today = date
 # today = date
 today = 11/22/20 10:13:00
 >>> today.year
 # today.year
 out = 2020
 >>> today.month
 # today.month
 out = 11
 >>> "30 Nov 2020" |> date
 # "30 Nov 2020" |> date
 out = 11/30/20 00:00:00
 >>> out |> date.add_days 4
 # out |> date.add_days(4)
 out = 12/04/20 00:00:00
 >>> date.format = "%F"
 >>> date
 # date
 out = 2020-11-22

guid

guid

Returns a new GUID as a string.

Returns

A new GUID as a string.

Example

>>> guid
# guid
out = "0deafe30-de4d-47c3-9631-2d3292afbb8e"

hex

hex(value,separator?,prefix?)

Converts an integral/bytebuffer input to an hexadecimal representation or convert an hexadecimal input string to an integral/bytebuffer representation.

  • value: The input value.
  • separator: The character used to separate hexadecimal bytes when converting from integral to hexadecimal.
  • prefix: Output the prefix 0x in front of each hexadecimal bytes when converting from integral to hexadecimal.

Returns

The hexadecimal representation of the input or convert the hexadecimal input string to an integral representation.

Remarks

When converting from a hexadecimal string to an integral representation, this method will skip any white-space characters, comma ,, colon :, semi-colon ;, underscore _ and dash -. When the hexadecimal input string can be converted to an integral less than or equal 8 bytes (64 bits) it will convert it to a single integral result, otherwise it will convert to a bytebuffer. See the following examples.

Example

>>> hex 10
# hex(10)
out = "0A"
>>> hex "0a"
# hex("0a")
out = 10
>>> hex "0xff030201"
# hex("0xff030201")
out = 4278387201
>>> hex out
# hex(out)
out = "01 02 03 FF"
>>> hex "01:02:03:04:05:06:07:08:09:0A:0B:0C:0D:0E:0F"
# hex("01:02:03:04:05:06:07:08:09:0A:0B:0C:0D:0E:0F")
out = bytebuffer([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15])
>>> hex(out, true, ",")
# hex(out, true, ",")
out = "0x01,0x02,0x03,0x04,0x05,0x06,0x07,0x08,0x09,0x0A,0x0B,0x0C,0x0D,0x0E,0x0F"
>>> hex out
# hex(out)
out = bytebuffer([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15])
>>> hex("1a,2b;3c 4d-5e_6f")
# hex("1a,2b;3c 4d-5e_6f")
out = 103832130169626
>>> hex out
# hex(out)
out = "1A 2B 3C 4D 6F 5E 00 00"
>>> hex float4(1,2,3,4)
# hex(float4(1, 2, 3, 4))
out = "00 00 80 3F 00 00 00 40 00 00 40 40 00 00 80 40"

insert_at

insert_at(list,index,item)

Inserts an item into a string or list at the specified index.

  • list: A string or list to insert an item into.
  • index: The index at which to insert the item.
  • item: The item to insert.

Returns

A new string with the item inserted, or a new list with the item inserted at the specified index.

Remarks

The index is adjusted at the modulo of the length of the input value. If the index is < 0, then the index starts from the end of the string/list length + 1. A value of -1 for the index would insert the item at the end, after the last element of the string or list.

Example

>>> insert_at("kalk", 0, "YES")
# insert_at("kalk", 0, "YES")
out = "YESkalk"
>>> insert_at("kalk", -1, "YES")
# insert_at("kalk", -1, "YES")
out = "kalkYES"
>>> insert_at(0..10, 1, 50)
# insert_at(0..10, 1, 50)
out = [0, 50, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
>>> insert_at(0..9, 21, 50) # final index is 21 % 10 = 1
# insert_at(0..9, 21, 50) # final index is 21 % 10 = 1
out = [0, 50, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
>>> insert_at([], 3, 1)
# insert_at([], 3, 1)
out = [1]

keys

keys(obj)

Returns the keys of the specified object.

  • obj: An object to get the keys from.

Returns

The keys of the parameter obj.

Example

>>> obj = {m: 1, n: 2}; keys obj
# obj = {m: 1, n: 2}; keys(obj)
obj = {m: 1, n: 2}
out = ["m", "n"]

lines

lines(text)

Extract lines from the specified string.

  • text: A string to extract lines from.

Returns

Lines extracted from the input string.

Example

>>> lines("k\na\nl\nk")
# lines("k\na\nl\nk")
out = ["k", "a", "l", "k"]

remove_at

remove_at(list,index)

Removes an item from a string or list at the specified index.

  • list: A string or list to remove an item from.
  • index: The index at which to remove the item.

Returns

A new string/list with the item at the specified index removed.

Remarks

The index is adjusted at the modulo of the length of the input value. If the index is < 0, then the index starts from the end of the string/list length. A value of -1 for the index would remove the last element.

Example

>>> remove_at("kalk", 0)
# remove_at("kalk", 0)
out = "alk"
>>> remove_at("kalk", -1)
# remove_at("kalk", -1)
out = "kal"
>>> remove_at(0..9, 5)
# remove_at(0..9, 5)
out = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9]
>>> remove_at(0..9, -1)
# remove_at(0..9, -1)
out = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]
>>> remove_at(asbytes(0x04030201), 1)
# remove_at(asbytes(67305985), 1)
out = bytebuffer([1, 3, 4])

replace

replace(list,value,by)

Replaces in an object (string, list, vector types, bytebuffer...) an item of the specified value by another value.

  • list: The list to search into to replace an element.
  • value: The item to replace.
  • by: The value to replace with.

Returns

The modified object.

Example

>>> replace("kalk", "k", "woo")
# replace("kalk", "k", "woo")
out = "wooalwoo"
>>> replace([1,2,3,4], 3, 5)
# replace([1,2,3,4], 3, 5)
out = [1, 2, 5, 4]
>>> replace(float4(1,2,3,4), 3, 5)
# replace(float4(1, 2, 3, 4), 3, 5)
out = float4(1, 2, 5, 4)

size

size(obj)

Returns the size of the specified object.

  • obj: The object value.

Returns

The size of the object.

Example

>>> size 1
# size(1)
out = 0
>>> size "kalk"
# size("kalk")
out = 4
>>> size float4(1,2,3,4)
# size(float4(1, 2, 3, 4))
out = 4
>>> size [1, 2, 3]
# size([1, 2, 3])
out = 3

slice

slice(list,index,length?)

Creates a slice of an object (string, list, vector types, bytebuffer...) starting at the specified index and with the specified length;

  • list: The object to create a slice from.
  • index: The index into the object.
  • length: The optional length of the slice. If the length is not defined, the length will start from index with the remaining elements.

Returns

A slice of the input object.

Remarks

The index is adjusted at the modulo of the specified length of the input object. If the index is < 0, then the index starts from the end of the input object length. A value of -1 for the index would take a slice with the only the last element.

Example

>>> slice("kalk", 1)
# slice("kalk", 1)
out = "alk"
>>> slice("kalk", -2)
# slice("kalk", -2)
out = "lk"
>>> slice("kalk", 1, 2)
# slice("kalk", 1, 2)
out = "al"
>>> slice([1,2,3,4], 1)
# slice([1,2,3,4], 1)
out = [2, 3, 4]
>>> slice([1,2,3,4], -1)
# slice([1,2,3,4], -1)
out = [4]
>>> slice([1,2,3,4], -1, 3) # length is bigger than expected, no errors
# slice([1,2,3,4], -1, 3) # length is bigger than expected, no errors
out = [4]
>>> slice(asbytes(0x04030201), 1, 2)
# slice(asbytes(67305985), 1, 2)
out = slice(bytebuffer([2, 3]), 1, 2)

utf16

utf16(value)

Converts a string to an UTF16 bytebuffer or convert a bytebuffer of UTF16 bytes to a string.

  • value: The specified input.

Returns

The UTF16 bytebuffer representation of the input string or the string representation of the input UTF16 bytebuffer.

Example

>>> utf16 "kalk"
# utf16("kalk")
out = bytebuffer([107, 0, 97, 0, 108, 0, 107, 0])
>>> utf16 out
# utf16(out)
out = "kalk"

utf32

utf32(value)

Converts a string to an UTF32 bytebuffer or convert a bytebuffer of UTF32 bytes to a string.

  • value: The specified input.

Returns

The UTF32 bytebuffer representation of the input string or the string representation of the input UTF32 bytebuffer.

Example

>>> utf32 "kalk"
# utf32("kalk")
out = bytebuffer([107, 0, 0, 0, 97, 0, 0, 0, 108, 0, 0, 0, 107, 0, 0, 0])
>>> utf32 out
# utf32(out)
out = "kalk"

utf8

utf8(value)

Converts a string to an UTF8 bytebuffer or convert a bytebuffer of UTF8 bytes to a string.

  • value: The specified input.

Returns

The UTF8 bytebuffer representation of the input string or the string representation of the input UTF8 bytebuffer.

Example

>>> utf8 "kalk"
# utf8("kalk")
out = bytebuffer([107, 97, 108, 107])
>>> utf8 out
# utf8(out)
out = "kalk"

values

values(obj)

Returns the values of the specified object.

  • obj: An object to get the values from.

Returns

The values of the parameter obj.

Example

>>> obj = {m: 1, n: 2}; values obj
# obj = {m: 1, n: 2}; values(obj)
obj = {m: 1, n: 2}
out = [1, 2]